ATC kod: J05AG04
Få kvinnor har inkluderats i de pivotala studierna och ingen relevant könsanalys avseende effekten av etravirin har hittats. Utslag har rapporterats vara vanligare hos kvinnor.
Vår bedömning är att de beskrivna skillnaderna inte motiverar olika dosering eller behandling hos kvinnor och män.
Antiretrovirals for treatment of HIV are always given as a combination of at least three medicines. Cobicistat is used to boost the effect of other antiretroviral drugs. As studies on HIV patients always include patients receiving combination therapy it is difficult to know which of the studied medicines that cause changes in effect and/or adverse events.
The manufacturer reports no significant pharmacokinetic differences between men and women but concludes that a limited number of women were included in the studies .
Both men and women have been included in the pivotal studies although the number of women was low, in the DUET study (1072 men, 131 women) . No clinically relevant sex analysis regarding the effect of etravirine has been performed.
The manufacturer reports rash to be more frequent in women treated with etravirine than in men . In the DUET study (1072 men, 131 women) 15% and 9%, respectively in women and men had rash . The severity was similar in men and women and there was no significant difference in discontinuations due to rash .
Regarding teratogenic aspects, please consult the Drugs and Birth Defects Database (in Swedish, Janusmed fosterpåverkan).
A review has described drug exposure in the genital tract of men and women which is of interest in viral transferal and in effect of pre-exposure prophylactic treatment. In men, concentrations in seminal fluid were described to be highest for nucleoside analogues and lowest for protease inhibitors and efavirenz. Seminal accumulation of raltegravir and maraviroc was defined as moderate. The rank order of accumulation presented in the review is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [lamivudine/zidovudine/tenofovir/didanosine > stavudine/abacavir] > raltegravir > indinavir/maraviroc/nevirapine >> efavirenz/protease inhibitors [amprenavir/atazanavir/darunavir > lopinavir/ritonavir > saquinavir] > enfuvirtide. In the female genital tract, the nucleoside analogues also were described as having high accumulation ratios, whereas protease inhibitors have limited penetration; however, substantial variability exists. Second generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor etravirine, and maraviroc and raltegravir, have been found to demonstrate effective accumulation in cervicovaginal secretions. The rank of accumulation presented in the review is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [zidovudine/lamivudine/didanosine > emtricitabine/tenofovir] > indinavir > maraviroc/raltegravir/darunavir/etravirine > nevirapine/abacavir > protease inhibitors [amprenavir/atazanavir/ritonavir] > lopinavir/stavudine/efavirenz > saquinavir .
Fler män än kvinnor hämtade ut tabletter innehållande etravirin (ATC-kod J05AG04) på recept i Sverige år 2017, totalt 86 män och 28 kvinnor .
Faktagranskat av: Karin Schenck-Gustafsson
Godkänt av: Karin Schenck-Gustafsson