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Classification: B

Drug products: Livocab, Livostin

ATC code: R01AC02, S01GX02

Substances: levocabastine, levocabastine hydrochloride


There are no published controlled studies on differences between the sexes regarding efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of levocabastine.

Additional information

Levocabastine is topically used in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis as a nasal spray or eye drops [1,2]. The prevalence of self-reported allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in a Swedish population study (n=10,670) was similar in men and women [3]. In a large population-based cohort study of self-reported rhinitis performed in 13 countries (150 378 male person-years, 163 363 female person-years) 27,7% of participants reported rhinitis. The peak incidence  time was in adolescence, in both males and females. In atopic subjects, the incidence of rhinitis was slightly higher in males in childhood but higher in females after the age of 25 [5].

Pharmacokinetics and dosing

Bioavailability after intranasal administration is 60-80% [1,4] and in ophtalmic administration 30-60% (2,4). Due to the low doses that are given, low plasma concentrations have been reported after topical administration [4].

No clinically significant age- or sex-related differences in steady-state levocabastine concentrations have been reported in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis treated with levocabastine topically, according to a review article (data not shown) [4].


No studies with a clinically relevant sex analysis regarding effects of levocabastine have been found.

Adverse effects

No studies with a clinically relevant sex analysis regarding adverse effects of levocabastine have been found.

Updated: 2022-09-26

Date of litterature search: 2022-08-04


  1. Livostin (levocabastine) eye-drops. Summary of Product Characteristics. Swedish Medical Products Agency [updated 2020-10-16, cited 2022-08-04]
  2. Livostin (levocabastine) nasal spray. Summary of Product Characteristics. Swedish Medical Products Agency [updated 2020-11-24, cited 2022-08-04]
  3. Olsson P, Berglind N, Bellander T, Stjärne P. Prevalence of self-reported allergic and non-allergic rhinitis symptoms in Stockholm: relation to age, gender, olfactory sense and smoking. Acta Otolaryngol. 2003;123(1):75-80. PubMed
  4. Heykants J, Van Peer A, Van de Velde V, Snoeck E, Meuldermans W, Woestenborghs R. The pharmacokinetic properties of topical levocabastine A review. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29(4):221-30. PubMed
  5. Matheson MC, Dharmage SC, Abramson MJ, Walters EH, Sunyer J, de Marco R et al. Early-life risk factors and incidence of rhinitis: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Study--an international population-based cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(4):816-823e5. PubMed
  6. Conise (INSIKT). Kalmar: eHälsomyndigheten. 2018 [cited 2021-11-18.] länk

Authors: Paulina Flis

Reviewed by: Diana Rydberg, Pauline Raaschou, Carl-Olav Stiller

Approved by: Karin Schenck-Gustafsson