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Ibuprofen

Hazard 2 P 0 B 0 T 2 Risk See below

Information

The T-value in the score for hazard refers to chronic toxicity. Underlying data for P, B and T are from Fass. Risk comes from Report Goodpoint 2016 and 2018.

Fass environmental information

Fass environmental information for Ipren (ibuprofen) (downloaded 2018-12-05).

Hazard

Persistence: "Ibuprofen passes the ready biodegradation test (with uncertainty around the 10-day window criterion due to sampling frequency) and has a DT50 < 32 days in a sediment dissipation study. The phrase “Ibuprofen is degraded in the environment” is thus chosen."

Bioaccumulation: "BCF in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after 8-d exposure with 3 μg/L ibuprofen = 1.50 (muscle) and 23.69 (fat). Zhang et al., (2010). Maximum BCF in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle after an 8-day exposure to 2.79 mg/L ibuprofen = 6.6 Togunde et al. (2012). Maximum BCF in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) tissue after 28 d exposure and 14 d depuration (OECD 305), and in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after 7 d exposure and 7 d depuration with 250 μg/L ibuprofen = 1.4. Nallani et al. (2011)."

Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive green algae NOEC, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly Selenastrum capricornutum), 10 microg/L.

Risk

PEC/PNEC is based on sales data in Sweden in year 2015. PEC / PNEC = 2.95 which gives the risk moderate.

Measurements and other information

In Sweden, ibuprofen has been measured in surface waters and in fish. In fish in concentrations far below therapeutic levels (Report Goodpoint 2016) .

Ibuprofen has been detected in treated wastewater, and surface water Stockholm County during the years 2012-2016.

Report Goodpoint 2018

Comparative assessment of environmental risk when using diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, etoricoxib, and paracetamol in Sweden (Report Goodpoint 2018): Log P for diclofenac from PubChem is reported to be 3.9-4.51. Available data clearly indicate that diclofenac represents the highest risk of the NSAID/analgesics investigated. The NSAIDs (ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) + paracetamol recommended in the Wise List are all better from an environmental point of view than diclofenac. Paracetamol is a very safe alternative from an environmental point of view. The others are also expected to cause a low environmental risk, somewhat elevated to ketoprofen.

References

  1. Fass.se för vårdpersonal
  2. Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
  3. SLL. Sammanställning av läkemedelsprovtagningar - Bearbetning av regional försäljningsstatistik av läkemedel samt datamaterial från Stockholms läns landstings mätprogram för läkemedelssubstanser i vattenmiljö, 2012–2016.
  4. Pounds N, Maclean S, Webley M, Pascoe D, Hutchinson T. Acute and chronic effects of ibuprofen in the mollusc Planorbis carinatus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008;70:47-52.
  5. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010. Subreport 3, B 2014 Pharmaceuticals.
  6. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd Fick J, Lindberg RH, Fång J, Magnér J, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Screening 2014. Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters. Rapport C 135.
  7. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Parkkonen J, Arvidsson B, Tysklind M, Larsson DG. Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:2661-6.
  8. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Tysklind M, Larsson DG. Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:516-23.
  9. Goodpoint. Jämförande bedömning av miljörisk vid användning av diklofenak, naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, etoricoxib samt paracetamol. Stockholm; Goodpoint; 2018.

Author: The Pharmaceutical unit of Region Stockholm