Drug products: Plegridy
ATC code: L03AB13
Substances: peginterferon beta-1a
No differences in effect or side effects between men and women have been reported and published studies with clinically relevant sex analysis have not been found.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more common in women than in men [1, 2]. The gender gap in prevalence has been increasing and is today estimated to be two to three times more common in women than in men [1-3].
Several risk factors of MS have been suggested to have a larger impact on women. Sunlight deprivation, vitamin D deficiency, overweight, low urate levels, and smoking are such risk factors that increase the risk more in women than in men. Suggested mechanisms are that smoking yields increased levels of mature peripheral functioning T cells (OKT3+) in women . Men have a worse prognosis and the role of sex hormones have been discussed [1, 2].
In a biomarker study of MS patients (30 men, 70 women) and healthy controls (24 men, 51 women), insulin growth factor binding protein1 (IGFBP1) was higher in women with MS compared to men . The authors suggest this could reflect different MS progression pathways in men and women.
No published studies with a clinically relevant sex analysis of the pharmacokinetics and dosing of peginterferon beta-1a have been found. However, no difference in dosing of peginterferon beta-1a in men and women have been suggested by the producer .
No differences in effect between men and women have been described  but studies with a clinically relevant sex analysis regarding the effects of peginterferon beta-1a have not been found.
No differences in adverse effects between men and women have been described  but studies with a clinically relevant sex analysis regarding adverse effects of peginterferon beta-1a have not been found.
Regarding teratogenic aspects, please consult Janusmed Drugs and Birth Defects (in Swedish, Janusmed fosterpåverkan).
In a US study based on questionnaires with a response rate of 44%, women with MS reported better awareness of disease symptoms and were found to express more positive perceptions of their ability to manage therapy with disease modifying drugs than men with MS .
In a survey study of patient risk tolerance in MS treatment 10 259 patients (response rate 53 %, resulting in 1196 men, 4250 women), women, elderly and those caring for dependents had a lower risk tolerance, while individuals with a more pronounced disability had a higher risk tolerance .
Date of litterature search: 2017-12-07
Reviewed by: Mia von Euler
Approved by: Karin Schenck-Gustafsson