Persistence. Carbamazepine is persistent. See comment on "potentially persistence" that is written in Fass under the heading "Detailed information" below.
Bioaccumulation. Carbamazepine has low potential for bioaccumulation.
Toxicity. Carbamazepine has high chronic toxicity.
Risk. The use of carbamazepine (sales data Sweden 2018) has been considered to result in low environmental risk.
This summary information comes from Fass. The information about persistence, bioaccumulation and risk is also supported by the report from Goodpoint.
Fass environmental information
Fass environmental information Tegretol (carbamazepine) from Novartis (downloaded 2023-03-28).
Persistence: "DT50 (total system) = 328 days (OECD 308). Based on the fact that carbamazepine is not readily biodegradable and according to the pass criteria for OECD308 studies, carbamazepine can be classified as ‘Carbamazepine is potentially persistent.’ (DT50 for total system > 120 days)." The database, Pharmaceuticals and Environment, reference group believes that based on these results, a drug substance is persistent and not potentially persistent, hence the information that carbamazepine is persistent in the initial summary information.
Bioaccumulation: Log Kow = 1.51 – 1.58 (OECD107).
Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive crustacean NOEC 25 microg/L.
PEC/PNEC is based on sales data in Sweden in year 2018. PEC/PNEC = 0.30532 which gives the risk low.
Report from Goodpoint
Carbamazepine is very persistent in the environment, but has a low potential for biooaccumulation. There is very good knowledge about the occurrence of water in Sweden. The reports that claim low-level effects have significant deficiencies. Low risk of environmental impact out of credible data.
Pharmaceuticals residues in the aquatic environment in Region Stockholm and in other parts of Sweden
Carbamazepine has been detected in treated wastewater, surface water and drinking water in Region Stockholm.
On the candidate list for the groundwater directive
Carbamazepine is listed as a candidate for Annex I or II of the Groundwater Directive.
Carbamazepine in caddisfly larvae
Carbamazepine has been detected in caddisfly larvae.
- Fass.se för vårdpersonal.
- Goodpoint. Prioritering av läkemedel med miljörisk inom SLL. Stockholm: Goodpoint; 2016. Rapport LS 2016–0634.
- Provtagningar av läkemedelsrester i vatten, sediment och fisk för Region Stockholm.
- IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010. Subreport 3, B 2014 Pharmaceuticals.
- IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd Fick J, Lindberg RH, Fång J, Magnér J, Kaj L, Brorström-Lundén E. Screening 2014. Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters. Rapport C 135.
- Sveriges geologiska undersökning (SGU). Nya ämnen att leta efter i grundvattnet. 15 januari 2020.
- Richmond EK, Rosi EJ, et al. A diverse suite of pharmaceuticals contaminates stream and riparian food webs. Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 6;9(1):4491. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06822-w.
Author: Health and Medical Care Administration, Region Stockholm