Hazard - P - B 0 T - Risk See below
Underlying data for P, B and T are from Fass. Data for B is also supported by the Goodpoint 2016 report.
Fass environmental information for Citodon (codeine, paracetamol) (downloaded 2019-02-13).
Persistence: "The potential for persistence of codeine cannot be excluded, due to lack of data."
Bioaccumulation: log Kow = 1.14.
Toxicity: No data.
"The risk of environmental impact of codeine cannot be excluded, since no ecotoxicity data are available."
The knowledge about the presence of codeine in Swedish waters and the impact on aquatic organisms is poor. Low potential for bioaccumulation.
Codeine has been detected in treated wastewater in Stockholm County in the last five years (2012-2016).
Codeine was one of the top 5 most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in spiders (article Richmond et al. 2018).
Author: Health and Medical Care Administration, Region Stockholm