Hazard 2 P 0 B 0 T 2 Risk Low
The T-value in the score for hazard refers to chronic toxicity. Underlying data for P, B and T are from Fass. Risk comes from Report Goodpoint 2019.
Fass environmental information for Ipren (ibuprofen) from McNeil (downloaded 2019-11-07).
Persistence: "Ibuprofen passes the ready biodegradation test (with uncertainty around the 10-day window criterion due to sampling frequency) and has a DT50 < 32 days in a sediment dissipation study. The phrase “Ibuprofen is degraded in the environment” is thus chosen."
Bioaccumulation: "BCF in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after 8-d exposure with 3 μg/L ibuprofen = 1.50 (muscle) and 23.69 (fat). Zhang et al., (2010). Maximum BCF in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle after an 8-day exposure to 2.79 mg/L ibuprofen = 6.6 Togunde et al. (2012). Maximum BCF in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) tissue after 28 d exposure and 14 d depuration (OECD 305), and in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after 7 d exposure and 7 d depuration with 250 μg/L ibuprofen = 1.4. Nallani et al. (2011). Since BCF < 500, the substance has low potential for bioaccumulation."
Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive green algae NOEC, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly Selenastrum capricornutum), 10 microg/L.
PEC/PNEC is based on sales data in Sweden in year 2018. PEC/PNEC = 2.34 which gives the risk moderate.
In Sweden, ibuprofen has been measured in surface waters and in fish. In fish in concentrations far below therapeutic levels (Report Goodpoint 2016) .
Ibuprofen has been detected in treated wastewater, and surface water in Region Stockholm during the years 2012–2016.
Comparative assessment of environmental risk when using diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, etoricoxib, celecoxib and paracetamol from a Swedish perspective (Report Goodpoint 2019). From an environmental risk point of view, the exchange of diclofenac is recommended for any of the other investigated NSAIDs/analgesics. [...] Paracetamol is a very safe alternative from an environmental point of view. The others are also considered to pose low environmental risk, but slightly increased for ketoprofen. The risk factors for ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, celecoxib, etoricoxib and paracetamol are not considered so great that an exchange with another substance is recommended. Environmental measurements as well as efficacy studies of both celecoxib and etoricoxib are required."
Author: Health and Medical Care Administration, Region Stockholm