The T-value in the score for hazard refers to acute toxicity. Underlying data for P, B, T and risk are from Fass.
Fass environmental information for Alvedon forte (paracetamol) (downloaded 2018-09-24).
Persistence: "Results of biological degradation: Inherent biodegradation = 99% in 5 days (OECD 302B, IUCLID data set). The substance is inherently biodegradable. The material is expected to be highly removed in wastewater treatment plants, 98% removal (Reference 9). This is supported by a measured biodegradation constant of 58-80 L g-1 d in a WWTP simulation test (Reference 6). Biodegradation constants greater than 10 are expected to result in greater than 90% biodegradation. Additionally, a DT50 of 3.1d and a DT90 of 10d was measured (Reference 8) using a water-sediment study (OECD 308) indicating a low potential for persistence. The phrase ‘Paracetamol is slowly degraded in the environment’ is thus chosen."
Bioaccumulation: Log Pow = 0.51 at pH 7 (OECD 107).
Acute toxicity: There is data for 3 trophic levels, lowest for algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus) 9 200 microg/L.
PEC/PNEC is based on sales data in Sweden in year 2014. PEC/PNEC = 0.196 which gives the risk low.
Studies from several Swedish wastewater treatment plants showed that paracetamol was reduced by almost 100%. Concentrations of paracetamol detected in a gradient from the inner city of Stockholm into the archipelago is up to 6.6 ng/L.
Report Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010 and drug analysis in Stockholm County. Paracetamol has also been measured in drinking water in the Stockholm area at concentrations up to 15 ng/L.
Comparative assessment of environmental risk when using diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, etoricoxib, and paracetamol in Sweden (Report Goodpoint 2018).Log P for diclofenac from PubChem is reported to be 3.9-4.51. Available data clearly indicate that diclofenac represents the highest risk of the NSAID/analgesics investigated. The NSAIDs (ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) + paracetamol recommended in the Wise List are all better from an environmental point of view than diclofenac. Paracetamol is a very safe alternative from an environmental point of view. The others are also expected to cause a low environmental risk, somewhat elevated to ketoprofen.
Author: The Pharmaceutical unit of Region Stockholm